Lead is a soft and malleable weak metal, toxic, and also a heavy metal. The original color of lead was bluish white, and the surface was quickly covered by a layer of dark gray oxide in the air. It can be used in construction, lead-acid batteries, warheads, welding materials, fishing equipment, fishing equipment, radiation protection materials, trophies and some alloys, such as Lead Die Castings. Lead is a metal element that can be used as a material for resistance to sulfuric acid corrosion, ionizing radiation, and storage batteries. Its alloy can be used for type, bearing, cable sheathing, etc., and can also be used for shot put of sports equipment.
Lead is a chemical element. Its chemical symbol is derived from Latin. The chemical symbol is Pb (Latin Plumbum), with an atomic weight of 207.2 and an atomic number of 82. Lead is the highest atomic number among all stable chemical elements. The family number is IVA, and the unit cell is a face-centered cubic unit cell FCC.
Lead is a bluish silver-white heavy metal. It is toxic and a main group metal with extensibility. Melting point is 327.502℃, boiling point is 1740℃, density is 11.3437g/cm^3, specific heat capacity is 0.13 kJ/(kg·K), hardness is 1.5, atomic volume is 18.17 cubic centimeters/mole, soft texture, low tensile strength.
The content of lead in the sun is 0.01ppm, the content of the element in sea water is 0.00001ppm on the Pacific Ocean, and the oxidation state is Main Pb+2, Pb+4.
Lead is a stable element with greater mass. There are 4 stable isotopes in nature: lead 204, 206, 207, 208, and more than 20 radioactive isotopes.
Metal lead is affected by oxygen, water and carbon dioxide in the air, and its surface will quickly oxidize to form a protective film; under heating, lead can quickly combine with oxygen, sulfur, and halogen; lead and cold hydrochloric acid and cold sulfuric acid have almost no effect , Can react with heat or concentrated hydrochloric acid and sulfuric acid; lead reacts with dilute nitric acid, but does not react with concentrated nitric acid; lead can slowly dissolve in strong alkaline solution.
The element symbol of lead, Pb, comes from the Latin name plumbum.
Lead metal is a blue-white heavy metal, soft in nature, weak in ductility, and strong in malleability. The surface in the air is easy to oxidize and lose its luster and darken. Soluble in nitric acid, hot sulfuric acid, organic acid and lye. Insoluble in dilute hydrochloric acid and sulfuric acid. Amphiphilic: it can form both high-lead acid metal salt and acid lead salt. Element source: Mainly exists in galena (PbS) and white lead ore (PbCO3), after calcination, lead sulfate and lead oxide are obtained, and then reduced to obtain metallic lead. One ionization energy is 7.4167 electron volts. The two ionization energy is 15.874 electron volts. The melting point is 327.5°C and the boiling point is 1740°C. The density is 11.3347 g/cm3.
Lead is a silver-white metal (compared with tin, lead is slightly bluish). It is very soft and can be traced on its surface with a nail. A stroke on the paper with lead will leave a gangster. In ancient times, people used lead as a pen. The name "Pencil" comes from here. Lead is very heavy. One cubic meter of lead weighs 11.3 tons. Ancient European alchemists used the slow-rotating Saturn to represent it, writing "h". The shot put is so heavy that it is made of lead. The warhead is also often filled with lead, because if it is too light, it will change direction when it moves forward. The melting point of lead is also very low, 327℃, and it will melt into lead water when placed in a briquettes furnace.
Lead is easy to rust-oxidize. Lead is often gray, because it is easily oxidized by oxygen in the air into gray-black lead oxide, which makes its silver-white luster gradually become dull. However, this layer of lead oxide forms a dense film to prevent further oxidation of the lead inside. Because of this, coupled with the relatively stable chemical properties of lead, lead is not easily corroded. In chemical plants, lead is often used to make pipes and reaction tanks. The famous lead chamber method for producing sulfuric acid is named after the chemical reaction in a lead-made reactor.
Lead is mainly used to make lead storage batteries; lead alloys can be used for casting lead and solder; lead is also used to make protective equipment for radioactive radiation and X-rays; lead and its compounds are highly toxic to the human body and can accumulate in the human body. Lead is used as a building material, used in lead sulfate batteries, used as bullets, solder, trophies and some alloys also contain lead.
Lead is not much contained in the earth's crust, and there is a small amount of natural lead in nature. However, due to the aggregation of lead-containing minerals and a very low melting point (328°C), lead was used by people in ancient times. Galena (PbS) is still the main source of lead extraction. In ancient times, people accidentally threw galena into a bonfire. It was first burned into oxides and then reduced by carbon to form metallic lead.
The lead surface can form a basic lead carbonate film in the air to prevent the inside from being oxidized again. Manufacture lead bricks or lead clothes to protect against X-rays and other radiation. Used to make alloys. An electrode composed of equal amounts of lead and tin can be used for welding metals. Make movable type gold. The alloy of lead and antimony has a low melting point and is used to make fuses.
The age-old lead is not only pure and dense, but also much lower in radioactivity than newly mined metals, so it is an ideal material for making shielding devices in high-precision physical experiments. However, because the age-old lead also has precious historical value, many historians oppose melting it.
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